**Part 1: Introduce**

**Definition**

The **WORKDAY** function in Excel returns a date representing a specific number of working days before or after a given date (the starting date). Working days exclude weekends and any specified holidays.

**Purpose**

The **WORKDAY** function is commonly used to calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work performed, excluding weekends or holidays.

**Syntax & Arguments**

The syntax for the **WORKDAY** function is as follows:

`=WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays]) `

**start_date**: Required. A date that represents the start date.**Days**: Required. The number of non-weekend and non-holiday days before or after the start date. A positive value yields a future date; a negative value yields a past date.**Holidays**: Optional. A list of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays.

**Explain the Arguments in the Function**

**start_date**: The initial date from which the calculation begins.**Days**: The number of working days to add or subtract from the start date.**Holidays**: A list of specific dates should be excluded from the calculation.

**Return Value**

The **WORKDAY** function returns a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after the start date.

**Remarks**

- Dates should be entered using the
**DATE**function or as results of other formulas. - If any argument is not a valid date,
**WORKDAY**returns the**#VALUE!**Error. - If the result yields an invalid date,
**WORKDAY**returns the**#NUM!**Error. - If
**days**is not an integer, it is truncated.

**Part 2: Examples**

**Example 1**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the expected delivery date for an order, excluding weekends and holidays.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Holidays | Formula | Result |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 10 | 2023-01-06 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2, D2)` | 2023-01-15 |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the expected delivery date as 10 working days from January 1, 2023, excluding the holiday on January 6, 2023. The result is January 15, 2023.

**Example 2**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the due date for an invoice, excluding weekends.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the due date for an invoice 30 working days from January 1, 2023. The result is February 11, 2023.

**Example 3**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the project completion date, excluding weekends and multiple holidays.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Holiday 1 | Holiday 2 | Formula | Result |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 15 | 2023-01-06 | 2023-01-20 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2, D2:E2)` | 2023-01-22 |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the project completion date as 15 working days from January 1, 2023, excluding the holidays on January 6 and 20, 2023. The result is January 22, 2023.

**Example 4**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the start date of a new project, considering a delay of 5 working days, excluding weekends.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | -5 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2022-12-23 |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the start date of a new project, considering a delay of 5 working days from January 1, 2023. The result is December 23, 2022.

**Example 5**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the expected shipment date for multiple orders, excluding weekends and a typical holiday.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Holiday | Formula | Result | |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 7 | 2023-01-06 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2, D2)` | 2023-01-10 | |

3 | 2 | 2023-01-10 | 10 | 2023-01-06 | `=WORKDAY(B3, C3, D3)` | 2023-01-24 |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the expected shipment dates for two orders, excluding weekends and a typical January 6, 2023, holiday. The results are January 10, 2023, and January 24, 2023, respectively.

**Example 6: Using IF with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Determine if a project’s end date falls within the expected timeframe.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Target Date | Formula | Result | Status |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 10 | 2023-01-15 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-01-15 | `=IF(E2<=D2, "On Time", "Delayed")` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the end date of 10 working days from January 1, 2023, and compares it to a target date. The **IF** function determines if the project is on time or delayed. Since the result matches the target date, the status is “On Time.”

**Example 7: Using SUM with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the total working days for multiple projects.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | End Date | Formula | Result | Total |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 2023-02-28 | `=WORKDAY(B2, 30)` | 2023-02-11 | |

3 | 2 | 2023-03-01 | 2023-04-30 | `=WORKDAY(B3, 40)` | 2023-04-20 | `=SUM(C2:C3)` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the end dates for two different project durations and then uses the **SUM** function to calculate the total working days for both projects. The total working days for both projects are 70.

**Example 8: Using VLOOKUP with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the project end date and look up the corresponding project status from a reference table.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result | Status |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 | `=VLOOKUP(E2, H2:I4, 2, FALSE)` |

H | I | |
---|---|---|

1 | Date | Status |

2 | 2023-02-11 | On Schedule |

3 | 2023-02-15 | Ahead |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the project end date 30 working days from January 1, 2023, and then uses the **VLOOKUP** function to look up the corresponding status from a reference table. Since the result is February 11, 2023, the status is “On Schedule.”

**Example 9: Using AVERAGE with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the average end date for multiple projects.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result | Average |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 | |

3 | 2 | 2023-03-01 | 40 | `=WORKDAY(B3, C3)` | 2023-04-20 | `=AVERAGE(C2:C3)` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the end dates for two different project durations and then uses the **AVERAGE** function to calculate the average working days for both projects. The average working days for both projects are 35.

**Example 10: Using CONCATENATE with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the project end date and create a summary statement.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result | Summary |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 | `=CONCATENATE("The project ends on ", TEXT(E2, "mm/dd/yyyy"), ".")` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the project end date 30 working days from January 1, 2023, and then uses the **CONCATENATE** function to create a summary statement. The summary is “The project ends on 02/11/2023.”

**Example 11: Using MAX with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the maximum end date among multiple projects.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result | Max Date |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 | |

3 | 2 | 2023-03-01 | 40 | `=WORKDAY(B3, C3)` | 2023-04-20 | `=MAX(E2:E3)` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the end dates for two different project durations and then uses the **MAX** function to find the maximum end date among the projects. The maximum end date is April 20, 2023.

**Example 12: Using MIN with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the minimum end date among multiple projects.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result | Min Date |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 | |

3 | 2 | 2023-03-01 | 40 | `=WORKDAY(B3, C3)` | 2023-04-20 | `=MIN(E2:E3)` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the end dates for two different project durations and then uses the **MIN** function to find the minimum end date among the projects. The minimum end date is February 11, 2023.

**Example 13: Using COUNTIF with WORKDAY**

**Purpose of Example**

Calculate the number of projects that meet a specific end date target.

**Data Tables and Formulas**

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Line | Start Date | Days | Formula | Result | Target Met |

2 | 1 | 2023-01-01 | 30 | `=WORKDAY(B2, C2)` | 2023-02-11 | |

3 | 2 | 2023-03-01 | 40 | `=WORKDAY(B3, C3)` | 2023-04-20 | `=COUNTIF(E2:E3, "<="&DATE(2023,3,1))` |

**Explanation**

This example calculates the end dates for two different project durations and then uses the **COUNTIF** function to count the number of projects that end on or before March 1, 2023. The number of projects that meet the target is 1.

**Part 3: Tips and Tricks**

**Use the DATE Function**: Always use the**DATE**function or other formulas to enter dates to avoid errors.**Consider the WORKDAY.INTL Function**: If you need to specify custom weekends, consider using**WORKDAY.INTL**function.**Utilize Named Ranges**: If you have a standard list of holidays, consider using a named range to make your formulas cleaner and more manageable.**Check for Errors**: Be mindful of potential errors like**#VALUE!**and**#NUM!**and understand what they mean to troubleshoot effectively.**Combine with Other Functions**: The**WORKDAY**function can be combined with other Excel functions to create more complex calculations.